Familiarity with the types of antibiotics and its pharmacological properties
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Antibiotics are chemicals that are obtained in both natural and artificial ways. Natural antibiotics are taken from microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria. Today, with the advancement of chemical chemotherapy, most of the antibiotics are the result of molecular changes on natural antibiotics.
The Importance of Antibiotics:
More than 30% or more of all patients admitted to the hospital are treated with one or more courses with antimicrobial agents; the amount of antibiotics used is even high in the hospital even in the community, and even arbitrarily, and OTC.
The death of an untreated bacterial infection is a thing of the past, and today we do not report the absence or absence of an antibiotic.
Importance and consequences of misuse of antibiotics:
An antibiotic treatment is prescribed for more than 40% of patients with respiratory viral infections. While viruses are not sensitive to the effects of antibiotics, and after the period of viral disease, the disease is spontaneous.
Misuse of antibiotics leads to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, resulting in greater need for new drugs or more effective drugs.
Increasing the cost of medical care and pharmaceutical costs (due to the worsening of complications of acute illness with more resistant microorganisms).
In terms of pharmacology (pharmacology), two common terms are used:
Pharmacokinetics: Depends on the properties of the drug that is associated with absorption (from the intestine, muscle, cutaneous, subcutaneous), diffusion (in blood or plasma, lymphatic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid), metabolism (in the liver, kidney, lung) , Skin) and drug withdrawal (from the liver, kidney)
Pharmacodynamics: Involves the molecular properties of a drug that is related to clinical effects of the drug and is applied by large protein molecules in the cell structure called receptor receptor.
Difference between antibiotics:
difference in :
Physical and Chemical Properties (Farcoucinetic Differences)
2. Differences in the antimicrobial spectrum and their mechanism of action (pharmacodynamic differences).
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the proliferation of bacteria, fungi, and viruses (ie, the causative agents of infection) has greatly affected the development and development of sensible compounds (antibiotics) that can interfere with the life cycle of microorganisms and inhibit growth or kill them. .
] Different types of antibiotics are different in terms of their chemical, physical, pharmacological, antimicrobial properties and mechanism of action. [
Antibiotics can be divided into three factors:
Spectrum of influence (broad-spectrum, limiting)
– Mechanism of action (bacterioside, bacteriostatic)
– Receptor structure (effective on PBPs receptors, ribosomal inhibitors, DNA synthesis inhibitors or RNA germs)
Antibiotics are divided into two major groups (in terms of the mechanism of action):
1. Antibiotics of bactericide, which kill the pathogen cells, means that the microorganism’s life ends and has no activity in life.
2. Bacteriostatic, which stops the growth and stays the number of pathogen cells, means that the life of microorganisms ends and has no activity in life. Microorganisms neither die nor can grow and reproduce.
Antibiotics (in terms of the spectrum of effect) are divided into two groups:
1. Plain Antibiotics: Those that are active against different types of microorganisms. Like tetracycline, which is effective against many gram-negative bacteria, chlamydia, mycoplasma and ricketzes.
2. Limited spectrum antibiotics: those that are only active against a microorganism or a very limited range of microorganisms, such as vancomycin, which is mainly used against gram-positive coccias such as staphylococci and enterococci.
The characteristic of a good antibiotic
An antibiotic is a good and effective antibiotic that:
1- In the place of the infection (pathogen accumulation site, such as dental abscess, sinusitis, brain, etc.), a sufficient concentration of the drug needed to inhibit the growth or kill of microorganisms.
2. The damage (toxicity, toxicity) does not enter the host or reach the upper limit.
3. Be sufficiently stable so that it can be separated from the medium and stored for a reasonable period of time without diminishing its effect.
4- Deoxygenation rate (detoxification) and disposal of the drug from the body in such a way as to maintain sufficient concentration for a certain period of time in the blood and do not require repeated doses.
5- Take the medicine fast enough and complete and discard it completely after discontinuation of the drug.
In other words, it is a good antibiotic antibiotic that is toxic and deadly to the host and is safe for the host, and it will not be spoiled or corrupted for long periods of time, it will stop in the body and can enter the site of the infection, and when it is cut off until Do not stay in the body for a long time and purify it in a reasonable time.